Swift is designed — first and foremost — to be a safe language. Numbers and collections are checked for overflow, variables are always initialized before first use, optionals ensure that non-values are handled correctly, and any potentially unsafe operations are named accordingly.

These language features go a long way to eliminate some of the most common programming errors, but we’d be remiss to let our guard down.

Today, I want to talk about one of the most exciting new features in Swift 5: an overhaul to how values in string literals are interpolated by way of the ExpressibleByStringInterpolation protocol. A lot of folks are excited about the cool things you can do with it. (And rightfully so! We’ll get to all of that in just a moment) But I think it’s important to take a broader view of this feature to understand the full scope of its impact.

Format strings are awful.

After incorrect NULL handling, buffer overflows, and uninitialized variables, printf / scanf-style format strings are arguably the most problematic holdovers from C-style programming language.

In the past 20 years, security professionals have documented hundreds of vulnerabilities related to format string vulnerabilities. It’s so commonplace that it’s assigned its very own Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) category.

Not only are they insecure, but they’re hard to use. Yes, hard to use.

Consider the dateFormat property on DateFormatter, which takes an strftime format string. If we wanted to create a string representation of a date that included its 4-digit year, we’d use "YYYY", as in "Y" for year …right?

let formatter = DateFormatter()
formatter.dateFormat = "YYYY-MM-dd"

formatter.string(from: Date()) // 2019-02-04 (🤨)

It sure looks that way, at least for the first 360-ish days of the year. But what if we jump to the last day of the year?

let dateComponents = DateComponents(year: 2019,
                                    month: 12,
                                    day: 31)
let date = dateComponents)!
formatter.string(from: date) // 2020-12-31 (😱)

Huh what? Turns out "YYYY" is the format for the ISO week-numbering year, which returns 2020 for December 31st, 2019 because the following day is a Wednesday in the first week of the new year.

What we actually want is "yyyy".

formatter.dateFormat = "yyyy-MM-dd"
formatter.string(from: date) // 2019-12-31 (😄)

Format strings are the worst kind of hard to use, because they’re so easy to use incorrectly. And date format strings are the worst of the worst, because it may not be clear that you’re doing it wrong until it’s too late. They’re literal time bombs in your codebase.

The problem up until now has been that APIs have had to choose between dangerous-but-expressive domain-specific languages (DSLs), such as format strings, and the correct-but-less-flexible method calls.

New in Swift 5, the ExpressibleByStringInterpolation protocol allows for these kinds of APIs to be both correct and expressive. And in doing so, it overturns decades’ worth of problematic behavior.

So without further ado, let’s look at what ExpressibleByStringInterpolation is and how it works:


Types that conform to the ExpressibleByStringInterpolation protocol can customize how interpolated values (that is, values escaped by \(...)) in string literals.

You can take advantage of this new protocol either by extending the default String interpolation type (DefaultStringInterpolation) or by creating a new type that conforms to ExpressibleByStringInterpolation.

Extending Default String Interpolation

By default, and prior to Swift 5, all interpolated values in a string literal were sent to directly to a String initializer. Now with ExpressibleByStringInterpolation, you can specify additional parameters as if you were calling a method (indeed, that’s what you’re doing under the hood).

As an example, let’s revisit the previous mixup of "YYYY" and "yyyy" and see how this confusion could be avoided with ExpressibleByStringInterpolation.

By extending String’s default interpolation type (aptly-named DefaultStringInterpolation), we can define a new method called appendingInterpolation. The type of the first, unnamed parameter determines which interpolation methods are available for the value to be interpolated. In our case, we’ll define an appendInterpolation method that takes a Date argument and an additional component parameter of type Calendar.Component that we’ll use to specify which

import Foundation

#if swift(<5)
#error("Download Xcode 10.2 Beta 2 to see this in action")

extension DefaultStringInterpolation {
    mutating func appendInterpolation(_ value: Date,
                                      component: Calendar.Component)
        let dateComponents =
                                            from: value)

            dateComponents.value(for: component)!

Now we can interpolate the date for each of the individual components:

"\(date, component: .year)-\(date, component: .month)-\(date, component: .day)"
// "2019-12-31"

It’s verbose, yes. But you’d never mistake .yearForWeekOfYear, the calendar component equivalent of "YYYY", for what you actually want.

But really, we shouldn’t be formatting dates by hand like this anyway. We should be delegating that responsibility to a DateFormatter:

You can overload interpolations just like any other Swift method, and having multiple with the same name but different type signatures. For example, we can define interpolators for dates and numbers that take a formatter of the corresponding type.

import Foundation

extension DefaultStringInterpolation {
    mutating func appendInterpolation(_ value: Date,
                                      formatter: DateFormatter)
            formatter.string(from: value)

    mutating func appendInterpolation<T>(_ value: T,
                                         formatter: NumberFormatter)
        where T : Numeric
            formatter.string(from: value as! NSNumber)!

This allows for a consistent interface to equivalent functionality, such as formatting interpolated dates and numbers.

let dateFormatter = DateFormatter()
dateFormatter.dateStyle = .full
dateFormatter.timeStyle = .none
"Today is \(Date(), formatter: dateFormatter)"
// "Today is Monday, February 4, 2019"

let numberformatter = NumberFormatter()
numberformatter.numberStyle = .spellOut

"one plus one is \(1 + 1, formatter: numberformatter)"
// "one plus one is two"

Implementing a Custom String Interpolation Type

In addition to extending DefaultStringInterpolation, you can define custom string interpolation behavior on a custom type that conforms to ExpressibleByStringInterpolation. You might do that if any of the following is true:

  • You want to differentiate between literal and interpolated segments
  • You want to restrict which types can be interpolated
  • You want to support different interpolation behavior than provided by default
  • You want to avoid burdening the built-in string interpolation type with excessive API surface area

For a simple example of this, consider a custom type that escapes values in XML, similar to one of the loggers that we described last week. Our goal: to provide a nice templating API that allows us to write XML / HTML and interpolate values in a way that automatically escapes characters like < and >.

We’ll start simply with a wrapper around a single String value.

struct XMLEscapedString: LosslessStringConvertible {
  var value: String

  init?(_ value: String) {
    self.value = value

  var description: String {
    return self.value

We add conformance to ExpressibleByStringInterpolation in an extension, just like any other protocol. It inherits from ExpressibleByStringLiteral, which requires an init(stringLiteral:) initializer. ExpressibleByStringInterpolation itself requires an init(stringInterpolation:) initializer that takes an instance of the required, associated StringInterpolation type.

This associated StringInterpolation type is responsible for collecting all of the literal segments and interpolated values from the string literal. All literal segments are passed to the appendLiteral(_:) method. For interpolated values, the compiler finds the appendInterpolation method that matches the specified parameters. In this case, both literal and interpolated values are collected into a mutable string.

import Foundation

extension XMLEscapedString: ExpressibleByStringInterpolation {
  init(stringLiteral value: String) {

  init(stringInterpolation: StringInterpolation) {

  struct StringInterpolation: StringInterpolationProtocol {
    var value: String = ""

    init(literalCapacity: Int, interpolationCount: Int) {

    mutating func appendLiteral(_ literal: String) {

    mutating func appendInterpolation<T>(_ value: T)
        where T: CustomStringConvertible
        let escaped = CFXMLCreateStringByEscapingEntities(
            nil, value.description as NSString, nil
        )! as NSString

        self.value.append(escaped as String)

With all of this in place, we can now initialize XMLEscapedString with a string literal that automatically escapes interpolated values. (No XSS exploits for us, thank you!)

let name = "<bobby>"
let markup: XMLEscapedString = """
<p>Hello, \(name)!</p>
// <p>Hello, &lt;bobby&gt;!</p>

One of the best parts of this functionality is how transparent its implementation is. For behavior that feels quite magical, you’ll never have to wonder how it works.

Compare the string literal above to the equivalent API calls below:

var interpolation =
    XMLEscapedString.StringInterpolation(literalCapacity: 15,
                                         interpolationCount: 1)
interpolation.appendLiteral("<p>Hello, ")

let markup = XMLEscapedString(stringInterpolation: interpolation)
// <p>Hello, &lt;bobby&gt;!</p>

Reads just like poetry, doesn’t it?

Seeing how ExpressibleByStringInterpolation works, it’s hard not to look around and find countless opportunities for where it could be used:

  • Formatting String interpolation offers a safer and easier-to-understand alternative to date and number format strings.
  • Escaping Whether its escaping entities in URLs, XML documents, shell command arguments, or values in SQL queries, extensible string interpolation makes correct behavior seamless and automatic.
  • Decorating Use string interpolation to create a type-safe DSL for creating attributed strings for apps and terminal output with ANSI control sequences for color and effects, or pad unadorned text to match the desired alignment.
  • Localizating Rather than relying on a a script that scans source code looking for matches on “NSLocalizedString”, string interpolation allows us to build tools that leverage the compiler to find all instances of localized strings.

If you take all of these and factor in possible future support for compile-time constant expression, what you find is that Swift 5 may have just stumbled onto the new best way to deal with formatting.


Questions? Corrections? Issues and pull requests are always welcome.

This article uses Swift version 5.0. Find status information for all articles on the status page.

Next Article

Regular expressions are a powerful tool for working with text, but it’s often a mystery how to get use them in Swift.