When I was a student in Japan, I worked part-time at a restaurant — アルバイト (arubaito) as the locals call it — where I was tasked with putting away dishes during downtime. Every plate had to be stacked neatly, ready to serve as the canvas for the next gastronomic creation. Lucky for me, the universal laws of physics came in quite handy — all I had to do was pile things up, rather indiscriminately, and move on to the next task.

In contrast, iOS developers often have to jump through several conceptual hoops when laying out user interfaces. After all, placing things in an upside-down 2D coordinate system is not intuitive for anyone but geometry geeks; for the rest of us, it’s not that cut and dried.

But wait — what if we could take physical world concepts like gravity and elasticity and appropriate them for UI layouts?

As it turns out, there has been no shortage of attempts to do so since the early years of GUIs and personal computing — Motif’s XmPanedWindow and Swing’s BoxLayout are notable early specimens. These widgets are often referred to as stack-based layouts, and three decades later, they are alive and well on all major platforms, including Android’s LinearLayout and CSS flexbox, as well as Apple’s own NSStackView, UIStackView, and — new in SwiftUI — HStack, VStack, and ZStack.

This week on NSHipster, we invite you to enjoy a multi-course course detailing the most delicious morsels of this most versatile of layout APIs: UIStackView.

Hors-d’œuvres 🍱 Conceptual Overview

Stacking layout widgets come in a wide variety of flavors. Even so, they all share one common ingredient: leaning on our intuition of the physical world to keep the configuration layer as thin as possible. The result is a declarative API that doesn’t concern the developer with the minutiæ of view placement and sizing.

If stacking widgets were stoves, they’d have two distinct sets of knobs:

  • Knobs that affect the items it contains
  • Knobs that affect the stack container itself

Together, these knobs describe how the available space is allotted; whenever a new item is added, the stack container recalculates the size and placement of all its contained items, and then lets the rendering pipeline take care of the rest. In short, the raison d’être of any stack container is to ensure that all its child items get a slice of the two-dimensional, rectangular pie.

Appetizer 🥗 UIStackView Essentials

Introduced in iOS 9, UIStackView is the most recent addition to the UI control assortment in Cocoa Touch. On the surface, it looks similar to its older AppKit sibling, the NSStackView, but upon closer inspection, the differences between the two become clearer.

Managing Subviews

In iOS, the subviews managed by the stack view are referred to as the arranged subviews. You can initialize a stack view with an array of arranged subviews, or add them one by one after the fact. Let’s imagine that you have a set of magical plates, the kind that can change their size at will:

let saladPlate = UIView()
let appetizerPlate = UIView()

let plateStack = UIStackView(arrangedSubviews: [saladPlate, appetizerPlate])

// or

let sidePlate = UIView()
let breadPlate = UIView()

let anotherPlateStack = UIStackView()


// Use the `arrangedSubviews` property to retrieve the plates
anotherPlateStack.arrangedSubviews.count // 2

You can also insert subviews at a specific index:

let chargerPlate = UIView()
anotherPlateStack.insertArrangedSubview(chargerPlate, at: 1)
anotherPlateStack.arrangedSubviews.count // 3

Adding an arranged view using any of the methods above also makes it a subview of the stack view. To remove an arranged subview that you no longer want around, you need to call removeFromSuperview() on it. The stack view will automatically remove it from the arranged subview list. In contrast, calling removeArrangedSubview(_ view: UIView) on the stack view will only remove the view passed as a parameter from the arranged subview list, without removing it from the subview hierarchy. Keep this distinction in mind if you are modifying the stack view content during runtime.

plateStack.arrangedSubviews.contains(saladPlate) // true
plateStack.subviews.contains(saladPlate) // true


plateStack.arrangedSubviews.contains(saladPlate) // false
plateStack.subviews.contains(saladPlate) // true


plateStack.arrangedSubviews.contains(saladPlate) // false
plateStack.subviews.contains(saladPlate) // false

Toggling Subview Visibility

One major benefit of using stack views over custom layouts is their built-in support for toggling subview visibility without causing layout ambiguity; whenever the isHidden property is toggled for one of the arranged subviews, the layout is recalculated, with the possibility to animate the changes inside an animation block:

UIView.animate(withDuration: 0.5, animations: {
  plateStack.arrangedSubviews[0].isHidden = true

This feature is particularly useful when the stack view is part of a reusable view such as table and collection view cells; not having to keep track of which constraints to toggle is a bliss.

Now, let’s resume our plating work, shall we? With everything in place, let’s see what can do with our arranged plates.

Arranging Subviews Horizontally and Vertically

The first stack view property you will likely interact with is the axis property. Through it you can specify the orientation of the main axis, that is the axis along which the arranged subviews will be stacked. Setting it to either horizontal or vertical will force all subviews to fit into a single row or a single column, respectively. This means that stack views in iOS do not allow overflowing subviews to wrap into a new row or column, unlike other implementations such CSS flexbox and its flex-wrap property.

The orientation that is perpendicular to the main axis is often referred to as the cross axis. Even though this distinction is not explicit in the official documentation, it is one of the main ingredients in any stacking algorithm — without it, any attempt at explaining how stack views work will be half-baked.

Main Axis Cross Axis Cross Axis Main Axis Horizontal Stack Vertical Stack

The default orientation of the main axis in iOS is horizontal; not ideal for our dishware, so let’s fix that:

plateStack.axis = .vertical

Et voilà!

Entrée 🍽 Configuring the Layout

When we layout views, we’re accustomed to thinking in terms of origin and size. Working with stack views, however, requires us to instead think in terms of main axis and cross axis.

Consider how a horizontally-oriented stack view works. To determine the width and the x coordinate of the origin for each of its arranged subviews, it refers to a set of properties that affect layout across the horizontal axis. Likewise, to determine the height and the y coordinate, it refers to another set of properties that affects the vertical axis.

The UIStackView class provides axis-specific properties to define the layout: distribution for the main axis, and alignment for the cross axis.

The Main Axis: Distribution

The position and size of arranged subviews along the main axis is affected in part by the value of the distribution property, and in part by the sizing properties of the subviews themselves.

In practice, each distribution option will determine how space along the main axis is distributed between the subviews. With all distributions, save for fillEqually, the stack view attempts to find an optimal layout based on the intrinsic sizes of the arranged subviews. When it can’t fill the available space, it stretches the arranged subview with the the lowest content hugging priority. When it can’t fit all the arranged subviews, it shrinks the one with the lowest compression resistance priority. If the arranged subviews share the same value for content hugging and compression resistance, the algorithm will determine their priority based on their indices.

With that out of the way, let’s take a look at the possible outcomes, starting with the distributions that prioritize preserving the intrinsic content size of each arranged subview:

  • equalSpacing: The stack view gives every arranged subview its intrinsic size alongside the main axis, then introduces equally-sized paddings if there is extra space.
  • equalCentering: Similar to equalSpacing, but instead of spacing subviews equally, a variably sized padding is introduced in-between so as the center of each subview alongside the axis is equidistant from the two adjacent subview centers.
(60 × 110) 60 × 110 (60 × 110) 60 × 110 (110 × 60) 110 × 60 (110 × 60) 110 × 60 (102 × 128) 102 × 128 (102 × 128) 102 × 128 (128 × 102) 128 × 102 (128 × 102) 128 × 102 (68 × 190) 68 × 190 (68 × 190) 68 × 190 (190 × 68) 190 × 68 (190 × 68) 190 × 68 Equal Spacing Equal Centering Equal Spacing Equal Centering Horizontal Stack Vertical Stack

In contrast, the following distributions prioritize filling the stack container, regardless of the intrinsic content size of its subviews:

  • fill (default): The stack view ensures that the arranged subviews fill all the available space. The rules mentioned above apply.
  • fillProportionally: Similar to fill, but instead of resizing a single view to fill the remaining space, the stack view proportionally resizes all subviews based on their intrinsic content size.
  • fillEqually: The stack view ensures that the arranged views fill all the available space and are all the same size along the main axis.
(60 × 110) 60 × 254 (60 × 110) 66.5 × 254 (110 × 60) 254 × 60 (110 × 60) 254 × 66.5 (102 × 128) 126 × 254 (102 × 128) 112.5 × 254 (102 × 128) 84.5 × 254 (128 × 102) 254 × 126 (128 × 102) 254 × 112.5 (110 × 60) 254 × 84.5 (128 × 102) 254 × 84.5 (68 × 190) 68 × 254 (68 × 190) 75 × 254 (68 × 190) 84.5 × 254 (190 × 68) 254 × 68 (190 × 68) 254 × 75 (190 × 68) 254 × 84.5 Fill Fill Fill Proportionally Fill Equally Horizontal Stack Vertical Stack Fill Proportionally Fill Equally (60 × 110) 84.5 × 254

The Cross Axis: Alignment

The third most important property of UIStackView is alignment. Its value affects the positioning and sizing of arranged subviews along the cross axis. That is, the Y axis for horizontal stacks, and X axis for vertical stacks. You can set it to one of the following values for both vertical and horizontal stacks:

  • fill (default): The stack view ensures that the arranged views fill all the available space on the cross axis.
  • leading/trailing: All subviews are aligned to the leading or trailing edge of the stack view along the cross axis. For horizontal stacks, these correspond to the top edge and bottom edge respectively. For vertical stacks, the language direction will affect the outcome: in left-to-right languages the leading edge will correspond to the left, while the trailing one will correspond to the right. The reverse is true for right-to-left languages.
  • center: The arranged subviews are centered along the cross axis.

For horizontal stacks, four additional options are available, two of which are redundant:

  • top: Behaves exactly like leading.
  • firstBaseline: Behaves like top, but uses the first baseline of the subviews instead of their top anchor.
  • bottom: Behaves exactly like trailing.
  • lastBaseline: Behaves like bottom, but uses the last baseline of the subviews instead of their bottom anchor.

Coming back to our plates, let’s make sure that they fill the available vertical space, all while saving the unused horizontal space for other uses — remember, these can shape-shift!

plateStack.distribution = .fill
plateStack.alignment = .leading

Palate Cleanser 🍧 Background Color

Another quirk of stack views in iOS is that they don’t directly support setting a background color. You have to go through their backing layer to do so.

plateStack.layer.backgroundColor = UIColor.white.cgColor

Alright, we’ve come quite far, but have a couple of things to go over before our dégustation is over.

Dessert 🍮 Spacing & Auto Layout

By default, a stack view sets the spacing between its arranged subviews to zero. The value of the spacing property is treated as an exact value for distributions that attempt to fill the available space (fill, fillEqually, fillProportionally), and as a minimum value otherwise (equalSpacing, equalCentering). With fill distributions, negative spacing values cause the subviews to overlap and the last subview to stretch, filling the freed up space. Negative spacing values have no effect on equal centering or spacing distributions.

plateStack.spacing = 2 // These plates can float too!

The spacing property applies equally between each pair of arranged subviews. To set an explicit spacing between two particular subviews, use the setCustomSpacing(:after:) method instead. When a custom spacing is used alongside the equalSpacing distribution, it will be applied on all views, not just the one specified in the method call.

To retrieve the custom space later on, customSpacing(after:) gives that to you on a silver platter.

plateStack.setCustomSpacing(4, after: saladPlate)
plateStack.customSpacing(after: saladPlate) // 4

You can apply insets to your stack view by setting its isLayoutMarginsRelativeArrangement to true and assigning a new value to layoutMargins.

plateStack.isLayoutMarginsRelativeArrangement = true
plateStack.layoutMargins = UIEdgeInsets()

Sometimes you need more control over the sizing and placement of an arranged subview. In those cases, you may add custom constraints on top of the ones generated by the stack view. Since the latter come with a priority of 1000, make sure all of your custom constraints use a priority of 999 or less to avoid unsatisfiable layouts.

let constraint = saladPlate.widthAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 200)
constraint.priority = .init(999)
constraint.isActive = true

For vertical stack views, the API lets you calculate distances from the subviews’ baselines, in addition to their top and bottom edges. This comes in handy when trying to maintain a vertical rhythm in text-heavy UIs.

plateStack.isBaselineRelativeArrangement = true // Spacing will be measured from the plates' lips, not their wells.

L’addition s’il vous plaît!

The automatic layout calculation that stack views do for us come with a performance cost. In most cases, it is negligible. But when stack views are nested more than two layers deep, the hit could become noticeable.

To be on the safe side, avoid using deeply nested stack views, especially in reusable views such as table and collection view cells.

After Dinner Mint 🍬 SwiftUI Stacks

With the introduction of SwiftUI during last month’s WWDC, Apple gave us a sneak peek at how we will be laying out views in the months and years to come: HStack, VStack, and ZStack. In broad strokes, these views are specialized stacking views where the main axis is pre-defined for each subtype and the alignment configuration is restricted to the corresponding cross axis. This is a welcome change that alleviates the UIStackView API shortcomings highlighted towards the end of cross axis section above. There are more interesting tidbits to go over, but we will leave that for another banquet.

Stack views are a lot more versatile than they get credit for. Their API on iOS isn’t always the most self-explanatory, nor is it the most coherent, but once you overcome these hurdles, you can bend them to your will to achieve non-trivial feats — nothing short of a Michelin star chef boasting their plating prowess.


Questions? Corrections? Issues and pull requests are always welcome.

This article uses Swift version 5.0. Find status information for all articles on the status page.

Written by Reda Lemeden
Reda Lemeden

Reda Lemeden is a UI designer and developer making software on both Apple platforms and the Web. He has a penchant for layout engines, grids, and color theory.

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