What constitutes the identity of an object?

Philosophers have contemplated such matters throughout the ages. Whether it’s to do with reconstructed seafaring vessels from antiquity or spacefaring vessels from science fiction, questions of Ontology reveal our perception and judgment to be much less certain than we’d like to believe.

Our humble publication has frequented this topic with some regularity, whether it was attempting to make sense of equality in Objective-C or appreciating the much clearer semantics of Swift vis-à-vis the Equatable protocol.

Swift 5.1 gives us yet another occasion to ponder this old chestnut by virtue of the new Identifiable protocol. We’ll discuss the noumenon of this phenomenal addition to the standard library, and help you identify opportunities to realize its potential in your own projects.

But let’s dispense with the navel gazing and jump right into some substance:

Swift 5.1 adds the Identifiable protocol to the standard library, declared as follows:

protocol Identifiable {
    associatedtype ID: Hashable
    var id: ID { get }

Values of types adopting the Identifiable protocol provide a stable identifier for the entities they represent.

For example, a Parcel object may use the id property requirement to track the package en route to its final destination. No matter where the package goes, it can always be looked up by its id:

import CoreLocation

struct Parcel: Identifiable {
    let id: String
    var location: CLPlacemark?

The Swift Evolution proposal for Identifiable, SE-0261, was kept small and focused in order to be incorporated quickly. If you were to ask, “What do you actually get by conforming to Identifiable?”, the answer right now is “Not much.” As mentioned in the future directions, conformance to Identifiable has the potential to unlock simpler and/or more optimized versions of other functionality, such as the new ordered collection diffing APIs.

But the question remains: “Why bother conforming to Identifiable?”

The functionality you get from adopting Identifiable is primarily semantic, and require some more explanation. It’s sort of like asking, “Why bother conforming to Equatable?”

And actually, that’s not a bad place to start. Let’s talk first about Equatable and its relation to Identifiable:

Identifiable vs. Equatable

Identifiable distinguishes the identity of an entity from its state.

A parcel from our previous example will change locations frequently as it travels to its recipient. Yet a normal equality check (==) would fail the moment it leaves its sender:

extension Parcel: Equatable {}

var specialDelivery = Parcel(id: "123456789012")
specialDelivery.location = CLPlacemark(
                             location: CLLocation(latitude: 37.3327,
                                                  longitude: -122.0053),
                             name: "Cupertino, CA"

specialDelivery == Parcel(id: "123456789012") // false == Parcel(id: "123456789012").id // true

While this is an expected outcome from a small, contrived example, the very same behavior can lead to confusing results further down the stack, where you’re not as clear about how different parts work with one another.

var trackedPackages: Set<Parcel> = 
trackedPackages.contains(Parcel(id: "123456789012")) // false (?)

On the subject of Set, let’s take a moment to talk about the Hashable protocol.

Identifiable vs. Hashable

In our article about Hashable, we described how Set and Dictionary use a calculated hash value to provide constant-time (O(1)) access to elements in a collection. Although the hash value used to bucket collection elements may bear a passing resemblance to identifiers, Hashable and Identifiable have some important distinctions in their underlying semantics:

  • Unlike identifiers, hash values are typically state-dependent, changing when an object is mutated.
  • Identifiers are stable across launches, whereas hash values are calculated by randomly generated hash seeds, making them unstable between launches.
  • Identifiers are unique, whereas hash values may collide, requiring additional equality checks when fetched from a collection.
  • Identifiers can be meaningful, whereas hash values are chaotic by virtue of their hashing functions.

In short, hash values are similar to but no replacement for identifiers.

So what makes for a good identifier, anyway?

Choosing ID Types

Aside from conforming to Hashable, Identifiable doesn’t make any other demands of its associated ID type requirement. So what are some good candidates?

If you’re limited to only what’s available in the Swift standard library, your best options are Int and String. Include Foundation, and you expand your options with UUID and URL. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses as identifiers, and can be more or less suited to a particular situation:

Int as ID

The great thing about using integers as identifiers is that (at least on 64-bit systems), you’re unlikely to run out of them anytime soon.

Most systems that use integers to identify records assign them in an auto-incrementing manner, such that each new ID is 1 more than the last one. Here’s a simple example of how you can do this in Swift:

struct Widget: Identifiable {
    private static var idSequence = sequence(first: 1, next: {$0 + 1})

    let id: Int

    init?() {
        guard let id = else { return nil} = id

Widget()?.id // 1
Widget()?.id // 2
Widget()?.id // 3

If you wanted to guarantee uniqueness across launches, you might instead initialize the sequence with a value read from a persistent store like UserDefaults. And if you found yourself using this pattern extensively, you might consider factoring everything into a self-contained property wrapper.

Monotonically increasing sequences have a lot of benefits, and they’re easy to implement.

This kind of approach can provide unique identifiers for records, but only within the scope of the device on which the program is being run (and even then, we’re glossing over a lot with respect to concurrency and shared mutable state).

If you want to ensure that an identifier is unique across every device that’s running your app, then congratulations —you’ve hit a fundamental problem in computer science. But before you start in on vector clocks and consensus algorithms, you’ll be relieved to know that there’s a much simpler solution: UUIDs.


UUIDs, or universally unique identifiers, (mostly) sidestep the problem of consensus with probability. Each UUID stores 128 bits — minus 6 or 7 format bits, depending on the version — which, when randomly generated, make the chances of collision, or two UUIDs being generated with the same value, astronomically small.

As discussed in a previous article, Foundation provides a built-in implementation of (version-4) UUIDs by way of the UUID type. Thus making adoption to Identifiable with UUIDs trivial:

import Foundation

struct Gadget: Identifiable {
    let id = UUID()

Gadget().id // 584FB4BA-0C1D-4107-9EE5-C555501F2077
Gadget().id // C9FECDCC-37B3-4AEE-A514-64F9F53E74BA

Beyond minor ergonomic and cosmetic issues, UUID serves as an excellent alternative to Int for generated identifiers.

However, your model may already be uniquely identified by a value, thereby obviating the need to generate a new one. Under such circumstances, that value is likely to be a String.

String as ID

We use strings as identifiers all the time, whether it takes the form of a username or a checksum or a translation key or something else entirely.

The main drawback to this approach is that, thanks to The Unicode® Standard, strings encode thousands of years of written human communication. So you’ll need a strategy for handling identifiers like “⽜”, “𐂌”, “”, and “🐮” …and that’s to say nothing of the more pedestrian concerns, like leading and trailing whitespace and case-sensitivity!

Normalization is the key to successfully using strings as identifiers. The easiest place to do this is in the initializer, but, again, if you find yourself repeating this code over and over, property wrappers can help you here, too.

import Foundation

fileprivate extension String {
    var nonEmpty: String? { isEmpty ? nil : self }

struct Whosit: Identifiable {
    let id: String

    init?(id: String) {
        guard let id = id.trimmingCharacters(in: CharacterSet.letters.inverted)
        else {
            return nil
        } = id

Whosit(id: "Cow")?.id // cow
Whosit(id: "--- cow ---")?.id // cow
Whosit(id: "🐮") // nil


URLs (or URIs if you want to be pedantic) are arguably the most ubiquitous kind of identifier among all of the ones described in this article. Every day, billions of people around the world use URLs as a way to point to a particular part of the internet. So URLs a natural choice for an id value if your models already include them.

URLs look like strings, but they use syntax to encode multiple components, like scheme, authority, path, query, and fragment. Although these formatting rules dispense with much of the invalid input you might otherwise have to consider for strings, they still share many of their complexities — with a few new ones, just for fun.

The essential problem is that equivalent URLs may not be equal. Intrinsic, syntactic details like case sensitivity, the presence or absence of a trailing slash (/), and the order of query components all affect equality comparison. So do extrinsic, semantic concerns like a server’s policy to upgrade http to https, redirect from www to the apex domain, or replace an IP address with a which might cause different URLs to resolve to the same webpage.

URL(string: "")! ==
    URL(string: "")! // false

try! Data(contentsOf: URL(string: "")!) ==
     Data(contentsOf: URL(string: "")!) // true

If your model gets identifier URLs for records from a trusted source, then you may take URL equality as an article of faith; if you regard the server as the ultimate source of truth, it’s often best to follow their lead.

But if you’re working with URLs in any other capacity, you’ll want to employ some combination of URL normalizations before using them as an identifier.

Unfortunately, the Foundation framework doesn’t provide a single, suitable API for URL canonicalization, but URL and URLComponents provide enough on their own to let you roll your own (though we’ll leave that as an exercise for the reader):

import Foundation

fileprivate extension URL {
    var normalizedString: String {  }

struct Whatsit: Identifiable {
    let url: URL
    var id: { url.normalizedString }

Whatsit(url: "").id //
Whatsit(id: "").id //

Creating Custom Identifier ID Types

UUID and URL both look like strings, but they use syntax rules to encode information in a structured way. And depending on your app’s particular domain, you may find other structured data types that would make for a suitable identifier.

Thanks to the flexible design of the Identifiable protocol, there’s nothing to stop you from implementing your own ID type.

For example, if you’re working in a retail space, you might create or repurpose an existing UPC type to serve as an identifier:

struct UPC: Hashable {
    var digits: String

struct Product: Identifiable {
    let id: UPC
    var name: String
    var price: Decimal

Three Forms of ID Requirements

As Identifiable makes its way into codebases, you’re likely to see it used in one of three different ways:

The newer the code, the more likely it will be for id to be a stored property — most often this will be declared as a constant (that is, with let):

import Foundation

// Style 1: id requirement fulfilled by stored property
struct Product: Identifiable {
    let id: UUID

Older code that adopts Identifiable, by contrast, will most likely satisfy the id requirement with a computed property that returns an existing value to serve as a stable identifier. In this way, conformance to the new protocol is purely additive, and can be done in an extension:

import Foundation

struct Product {
    var uuid: UUID

// Style 2: id requirement fulfilled by computed property
extension Product: Identifiable {
    var id { uuid }

If by coincidence the existing class or structure already has an id property, it can add conformance by simply declaring it in an extension (assuming that the property type conforms to Hashable).

import Foundation

struct Product {
    var id: UUID

// Style 3: id requirement fulfilled by existing property
extension Product: Identifiable {}

No matter which way you choose, you should find adopting Identifiable in a new or existing codebase to be straightforward and noninvasive.

As we’ve said time and again, often it’s the smallest additions to the language and standard library that have the biggest impact on how we write code. (This speaks to the thoughtful, protocol-oriented design of Swift’s standard library.)

Because what Identifiable does is kind of amazing: it extends reference semantics to value types.

When you think about it, reference types and value types differ not in what information they encode, but rather how we treat them.

For reference types, the stable identifier is the address in memory in which the object resides. This fact can be plainly observed by the default protocol implementation of id for AnyObject types:

extension Identifiable where Self: AnyObject {
    var id: ObjectIdentifier {
        return ObjectIdentifier(self)

Ever since Swift first came onto the scene, the popular fashion has been to eschew all reference types for value types. And this neophilic tendency has only intensified with the announcement of SwiftUI. But taking such a hard-line approach makes a value judgment of something better understood to be a difference in outlook.

It’s no coincidence that much of the terminology of programming is shared by mathematics and philosophy. As developers, our work is to construct logical universes, after all. And in doing so, we’re regularly tasked with reconciling our own mental models against that of every other abstraction we encounter down the stack — down to the very way that we understand electricity and magnetism to work.


Questions? Corrections? Issues and pull requests are always welcome.

This article uses Swift version 5.1. Find status information for all articles on the status page.

Written by Mattt

Mattt (@mattt) is a writer and developer in Portland, Oregon.

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